The intricate dance of hormones within a woman’s body plays a crucial role in various aspects of her health, including the menstrual cycle, fertility, and overall well-being. The menstrual cycle consists of four main phases: Menstrual, Follicular, Ovulatory, and Luteal. Tailoring nutrition, movement, and lifestyle choices to these cycles can optimize hormonal balance and contribute to overall health.

Menstrual Phase

During menstruation, days 1-5, estrogen and progesterone levels are at their lowest. Nutrient-rich foods such as leafy greens, legumes, and iron-rich foods can help replenish nutrients lost during the menstrual flow. Consuming omega-3 fatty acids from sources like fatty fish or flaxseeds may also alleviate inflammation and reduce menstrual cramps.

Light exercises such as yoga or walking can be beneficial during this phase. These activities can help manage stress and support the body without placing excessive strain on it.

Follicular Phase

The follicular phase, spanning approximately days 6 to 14 of the menstrual cycle, represents the time when the body prepares for ovulation. This phase is characterized by dynamic hormonal changes and various physiological events. Estrogen stimulates the thickening of the uterine lining (endometrium), preparing it for a potential pregnancy. Many women experience a positive shift in mood along with more energy.

Focus on foods rich in complex carbohydrates, fiber, and antioxidants. Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables provide sustained energy and support the body’s need for nutrients.

Engaging in moderate-intensity exercises like strength training or aerobic workouts can complement the increased energy levels during this phase. These activities can enhance mood and help boost metabolism.

Ovulatory Phase

The ovulatory phase, typically occurring around days 15 to 17 of the menstrual cycle, is a crucial period when the body releases a mature egg from the ovary, marking the peak of fertility. This phase involves specific biological processes and hormonal changes essential for successful conception. Estrogen levels, driven by the maturing follicle, reach their highest point just before ovulation. The mature egg is released from the ovary and moves into the fallopian tube. This is the peak time for conception, as the egg is viable for fertilization for about 12-24 hours after release.

Include foods rich in B-vitamins, such as eggs, leafy greens, and lean meats, to support this phase.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) or more intense workouts may be well-tolerated during ovulation. These exercises capitalize on increased energy levels and can aid in muscle building.

Luteal Phase

The Luteal Phase, occurring roughly from days 18 to 28, follows ovulation and precedes the onset of menstruation. This phase is characterized by significant hormonal changes and the preparation of the body for either pregnancy or the subsequent menstrual cycle. Progesterone rises in the luteal phase, this increased progesterone may lead to breast tenderness or swelling.

Some women may experience mild bloating or water retention. Fluctuations in hormones may contribute to mood swings or irritability. Energy levels may vary, with some women feeling slightly more fatigued. In the absence of pregnancy, the declining levels of these hormones trigger the start of menstruation.

Opt for complex carbohydrates, such as sweet potatoes and whole grains, to help stabilize blood sugar levels.

Engaging in calming exercises like walking, swimming, or gentle yoga can be beneficial during the luteal phase. These activities help manage stress and support hormonal balance.

Here is a little cheat sheet for a quick breakdown of everything that we just covered:

  1. Menstrual Phase: (Days 1-5)

Hormonal Changes:

– Estrogen and Progesterone: At their lowest levels.

– Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): Begins to rise, stimulating the development of follicles in the ovaries.

Impact on the Body and Mind:

– Menstruation: The shedding of the uterine lining.

– Physical Symptoms:  Fatigue, cramps, and mood swings may occur.

– Emotional State: Some women may experience introspection and a desire for more rest and self-care.

Self-Care: Prioritize rest and relaxation.

Nutrition: Iron-rich foods for replenishing lost nutrients.

  1. Follicular Phase: (Days 6-14)

Hormonal Changes:

– Estrogen: Begins to rise, promoting the thickening of the uterine lining.

– Luteinizing Hormone (LH): Surges, leading to ovulation.

Impact on the Body and Mind:

– Energy Levels: Generally increase.

– Physical Symptoms: Improved mood, increased focus, and heightened libido.

– Emotional State: More extroverted and open to new experiences.

Physical Activity: Engage in moderate to high-intensity workouts.

Nutrition: Focus on complex carbohydrates and nutrient-dense foods.

  1. Ovulatory Phase: (Days 15-17)

Hormonal Changes:

– Estrogen: Peaks, promoting the release of an egg from the ovary.

Impact on the Body and Mind:

– Fertility: Highest during this phase.

– Physical Symptoms: Possible breast tenderness or heightened senses.

– Emotional State: Increased sociability, creativity, and assertiveness.

Fertility Awareness: Useful for those trying to conceive.

Exercise: Take advantage of increased energy for more intense workouts.

  1. Luteal Phase: (Days 18-28)

Hormonal Changes:

– Progesterone: Rises to prepare the uterus for a potential pregnancy.

– Estrogen: Begins to decline if pregnancy doesn’t occur.

Impact on the Body and Mind:

– Energy Levels: May decrease towards the end of the phase.

– Physical Symptoms: Breast tenderness, bloating, and potential mood swings.

– Emotional State: Some women experience heightened emotions, sensitivity, or irritability.

Stress Management: Practice stress-reducing activities: box breathing, warm baths, sauna, yoga, walks

Nutrition: Support mood with balanced meals consisting of protein, fiber, and omega-3 fatty acids.


*Days Based on a 28 day menstrual cycle*


Understanding and embracing the unique aspects of each phase of the hormone cycle allows women to adapt their lifestyles, including nutrition, exercise, and self-care practices, to support their overall well-being throughout the menstrual cycle. To help you better understand how to optimization your hormones STAT is hosting a virtual Hormone Optimization Group lead by our founder and CEO, Kristin Oja. You can learn more about it here. As always, it’s important to consult with healthcare professionals for individualized advice based on personal health history and needs when it comes to health and wellbeing but especially hormone health.